HIGH VARIETY VS LOW VARIETY CULTURE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE : THE TENSIONS BETWEEN FUSHÂ AND ‘ÂMIYYA IN THE CONTEMPORARY ARAB WORLD

Yoyo Yoyo, Abdul Mukhlis, Thonthowi Thonthowi, Ferawati Ferawati

Abstract


Arabic language, in its sociological context is divided into two varieties: fusha and ‘amiyya. Arabic fusha is the official language and perceived as the language of Islam. In contrast to the fusha, ‘amiyya is the language used by the Arab people in their daily conversations. However, this ‘amiyya is considered as inferior. The method used in this study was qualitative that stressed the interaction between language and its sociological context. The method assumed that social and political events affected language use in a particular society. The paper tries to re-popularize the two terms used by Ferguson that are "high variety" (H) and “low variety” (L) culture in analyzing the two languages varieties. Besides, the paper explores the tension of the two languages through contemporary social and political events taking place in the Arab World. The Arabic fusha is perceived as a representation of “H” culture because it is a language used in religious literature and official writings, while the ‘amiyya referred to as a representation of “L” variety culture because it is used only as a medium of regular communication.

Keywords


high variety culture; low variety culture; fusha; ‘amiyya; contemporary Arab

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abu-Absi, S. 1986. “The Modernization of Arabic: Problems and Prospects”, Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 28, No. 3.

Albirini, A. 2014. “The Role of the Colloquial Varieties in the Acquisition of the Standard Variety: The Case of Arabic Heritage Speakers”, Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 47, No. 3.

Albirini, A. 2015. Modern Arabic Sociolinguistics: Diglossia, Variation, Codeswitching, Attitudes and Identity. London & NewYork: Routledge.

Arnold, T. W. 1917. “The Study of Arabic”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, Vol. 1, No. 1.

Bassiouney, R. 2009. Arabic sociolinguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Benrabah, M. 2013. Language conflict in Algeria: From colonialism to post-independence, Vol. 154. n.p.: Multilingual matters.

Bruns, A., T. Highfield, & J. Burgess. 2013. “The Arab Spring and Social Media Audiences: English and Arabic Twitter Users and Their Networks”, American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 57, No. 7.

Daher, N., & N.Y. Daher. 1987. “Arabic Sociolinguistics: State of the Art”, Al-’Arabiyya, Vol. 20, No. 1/2.

Elshakry, M.S. 2008. “Knowledge in Motion: The Cultural Politics of Modern Science Translations in Arabic”, Isis, Vol. 99, No. 4.

Ferguson, C.A. 1959. “Diglossia”, Word, Vol. 15, No. 2.

Garduno, M. 2012. “Interpreting Revolutionary Arabic : Terms and Vocabulary in the Language(s) of the Arab Spring”, The Arab world : the role of media in the arab world’s ; symposioum proceedings ; Deutsche Welle Media Dialogue May 2012, Berlin: Vistas Verl.

Gumperz, J. 1999. “On Interactional Sociolinguistic Method”, Talk, Work and Institutional Order: Discourse in Medical, Mediation and Management Settings, Vol. 453.

Haeri, N. 2000. “Form and Ideology: Arabic Sociolinguistics and Beyond”, Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 29, No. 1.

Haeri, N. 2003. Sacred Language, Ordinary People: Dilemmas of Culture and Politics in Egypt. https://www.springer.com.

Kaye, A.S. 1970. “Modern Standard Arabic and the colloquials”, Lingua, Vol. 24.

Kosoff, Z. 2014. “Code-Switching in Egyptian Arabic: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Twitter”, Al-ʿArabiyya: Journal of the American Association of Teachers of Arabic, Vol. 47, No. 1.

Lewis, B. 1991. The Political Language of Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mabry, T James. 2007. Nationalism, Language and Islam: A Cross-Regional Comparative Study of Muslim Minority Conflict. Pennsylvania: University o f Pennsylvania.

Michel, N.N.H. 2013. “ IrHal!”: The Role of Language in the Arab Spring. Georgetown University.

Neggaz, N. 2013. “Syria’s Arab Spring: Language, Enrichment in the Midst of Revolution”, Language Discourse & Society, Vol. 2, No. 2.

Owens, J. 2001. “Arabic sociolinguistics”, Arabica, Vol. 48, No. 4.

Rabie, M.S. 1992. “A Sociolinguistic Study of Diglossia of Egyptian Radio Arabic: An Ethnographic Approach”, Unpublished Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin). Retrieved from https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=5862069

Raddaoui, A.H. 2015. “Arabic in the Lead-Up to the Arab Spring: Fusion or Diffusion”, Research Result, Vol. 4, No. 6.

Rosenhouse, J. 2011. “Trends of Development in Arabic Dialectology in the 20th Century: A Survey”, Zeitschrift Für Arabische Linguistik, Vol. 54.

Sawaie, M. 2000. “Rifa’a Rafi At-Tahtawi and His Contribution to the Lexical Development of Modern Literary Arabic”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3.

Stadlbauer, S. 2010. “Language ideologies in the Arabic diglossia of Egypt”, Colorado Research in Linguistics, Vol. 22, No. 1.

Young, R. 1999. “Sociolinguistic Approaches to SLA”, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 19.

Yoyo. 2017. Pemikiran Arab: Dinamika Intelektual, Ideologi, dan Gerakan. Yogyakarta: Sociality.

Yoyo. 2017. “Pengaruh Bahasa Arab terhadap Identitas Sosio-kultural dan Keagamaan Masyarakat Koptik di Mesir”, CMES Jurnal Studi Timur Tengah, Vol. 10, No. 1.

Yoyo., & A. Mukhlis. 2019. “Historiography of the Arabic Grammar in Europe: The Legacy of Wright’s Arabic Grammar”, First International Conference on Progressive Civil Society (ICONPROCS 2019).

Yoyo., A. Mukhlis, & Thonthowi. 2018. “Investigating the Use of Arabic Terms on Sociopolitical Context during the Arab Spring”, Prosiding Pertemuan Ilmiah Internasional Bahasa Arab.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24865/ajas.v5i1.195

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Yoyo, Abdul Mukhlis, Thonthowi, Ferawati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed By:

DOAJ sinta Crossref Google Scholar AcademicKeys Research Bib academia.edu academia.edu garuda garuda

 

Creative Commons License

Copyright CC-BY-SA

web
counter View My Stats

Arabi : Journal of Arabic Studies, p-ISSN: 2548-6616, e-ISSN: 2548-6624