Rika Astari, Dela Mutiawati, Muhammad Irfan Faturrahman


There has been an identity crisis as an Arabic derivative in the speech of code switching and code mixing in Bara Masoud's Instagram caption. This study aims to show the forms of code switching and code mixing in BM's Instagram caption, the factors and their impact on BM's identity as Palestinian Arab descent. This research is descriptive qualitative. The data of this research is Baara Masoud's Instagram caption (May-July 2021). The identity crisis shown by code switching and code mixing into English has emphasized that language control and public understanding processes are needed on the characteristics of language and national identity in interacting on social media. English characters which consist of: not distinguishing between feminine and masculine verbs, social status, simple syllables, which are suitable for use by teenagers have become one of the causes of shifting a language to a cultural values and the identity of a nation.


identity crisis; code switching; code mixing; Bara Masoud

Full Text:



Adi, Wiruma Titian. 2018. “Code Switching in Critical Eleven Novel”, Metathesis: Journal of English Language, Literature, and Teaching, Vol. 2, No. 1.

Alkhlaifat, Etaf., Yang, Ping., and Mohamed Moustakim. 2020. “Code-Switching between Arabic and English during Jordanian GP Consultations”, Crossroads. A Journal of English Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3.

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. New York: Verso Books, 2006.

Androutsopoulos, Jannis. 2007. “Bilingualism in the Mass Media and on the Internet”, In Bilingualism: A Social Approach, Palgrave Advances in Linguistics. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Anon. 2015. “Multilingualism and the Ethnic Identity of the Ette People”, Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies, Vol. 4.

Anwas, E. Oos M., Sugiarti, Yuni., Permatasari, Anggraeni Dian., Warsihna, Jaka., Anas, Zulfikri., Alhapip, Leli., Siswanto, Heni Waluyo., and Rivalina, Rahmi. 2020. “Social Media Usage for Enhancing English Language Skill”, International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, Vol. 14, No. 7.

Bahremand, Alireza. 2015. “The Concept of Translation in Different Teaching Approaches and Methods”, UCT Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, Vol. 3, No. 1.

Baker, Colin., and Wayne E. Wright. 2021. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Choudhury, Promiti Dutta. 2020. “Is The Language Used In Social Media Affecting Textual Language Vis A Vis Spoken Language?: Studying The Impact of Acronyms on Language Usage”, International Journal of English Learning & Teaching Skills, Vol. 1, No. 1.

Christison, Mary Ann., and Murray, Denise E. 2014. What English Language Teachers Need to Know Volume III: Designing Curriculum. New York: Routledge.

Cummins, Jim. 2001. “Bilingual Children’s Mother Tongue: Why Is It Important for Education?”, Sprogforum, Vol. 7, No. 19.

de Donno, Fabrizio. 2020. “Translingual Affairs of World Literature Rootlessness and Romance in Jhumpa Lahiri and Yoko Tawada”, Journal of World Literature, Vol. 6, No. 1.

Dressler, Cheryl., Carlo, Maria S., Snow, Catherine E., August, Diane., and White, Claire E. 2011. “Spanish-Speaking Students’ Use of Cognate Knowledge to Infer the Meaning of English Words”, Bilingualism, Vol. 14, No. 2.

Eldin, Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf. 2014. “Socio Linguistic Study of Code Switching of the Arabic Language Speakers on Social Networking”, International Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 4, No. 6.

Green, David W., and Abutalebi, Jubin. 2013. “Language Control in Bilinguals: The Adaptive Control Hypothesis”, Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 25, No. 5.

Grosjean, François. 2012. “A Psycholinguistic Approach to Code-Switching: The Recognition of Guest Words by Bilinguals”, In One Speaker, Two Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hell, Janet G., Litcofsky, Kaitlyn A., and Ting, Caitlin Y. 2015. "Intra-sentential code-switching: Cognitive and neural approaches", The Cambridge handbook of bilingual processing.

Heredia, Roberto R., and Altarriba, Jeanette. 2001. “Bilingual Language Mixing: Why Do Bilinguals Code-Switch?” Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 10, No. 5.

Kemp, Simon. 2018. “Digital in 2018: World’s Internet Users Pass the 4 Billion Mark”, We Are Social.

Kristiansen, Stein., Furuholt, Bjørn., and Wahid, Fathul. 2003. “Internet Café Entrepreneurs: Pioneers in Information Dissemination in Indonesia”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 4, No. 4.

Lanza, Elizabeth. 1997. Language Mixing in Infant Bilingualism : A Sociolinguistic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Li, David C. S. 2000. “Cantonese-English Code-Switching Research in Hong Kong: A Y2K Review”, World Englishes, Vol. 19, No. 3.

Lim, Merlyna. 2013. “Many Clicks but Little Sticks: Social Media Activism in Indonesia”, Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 43, No. 4.

Lim, Merlyna. 2018. “Dis/Connection: The Co-Evolution of Sociocultural and Material Infrastructures of the Internet in Indonesia”, Indonesia, Vol. 105.

Locastro, Virginia., Kecskes, Istvan., and Papp, Tunde. 2001. “Foreign Language and Mother Tongue”, TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 3.

Luna, David., and Peracchio, Laura A. 2001. “Moderators of Language Effects in Advertising to Bilinguals: A Psycholinguistic Approach”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 28, No. 2.

Melby-Lervåg, Monica., and Lervåg, Arne. 2011. “Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Oral Language, Decoding, Phonological Awareness and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis of the Correlational Evidence”, Journal of Research in Reading, Vol. 34, No. 1.

Meshi, Dar., Tamir, Diana I., and Heekeren, Hauke R. 2015. “The Emerging Neuroscience of Social Media”, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 12.

Montrul, Silvina. 2012. “Bilingualism and the Heritage Language Speaker”, in The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism: Second Edition. New Jersey: Wiley.

Myers-Scotton, Carol. 2020. “Code-Switching as Indexical of Social Negotiations”, in The Bilingualism Reader. New York: Routledge.

Nilep, Chad. 2006. “‘Code Switching’ in Sociocultural Linguistics”, Colorado Research in Linguistics, Vol. 19.

Nuraeni, Bani Lisa., Farid, Mochammad Zhafran., and Cahyati, Sri Supiah. 2018. “The Use of Indonesian English Code Mixing on Instagram Captions”, Project (Professional Journal of English Education), Vol. 1, No. 4.

Padmadewi., et al. 2014. Sosioliinguistik. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Poeste, Meike., Müller, Natascha., and Gil, Laia Arnaus. 2019. “Code-Mixing and Language Dominance: Bilingual, Trilingual and Multilingual Children Compared.” International Journal of Multilingualism, Vol. 16, No. 4.

Puspita, R. H., and Rohedi, D. 2018. “The Impact of Internet Use for Students”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 306.

Puspitasari, Ratna Dyah, and Dewanti, Anna. 2020. “Code Switching in Sarah Sechan Talk Show on NET TV”, Utopia y Praxis Latinoamericana, Vol. 25, No. 1s.

Ranjan, Amit. 2021. "Language as an Identity: Hindi–Non-Hindi Debates in India", Society and Culture in South Asia, Vol. 7, No. 2.

Retnawati, Saptina., and Mujiyanto, Yan. 2015. "Code switching used in conversations by an american student of the darmasiswa program", Language Circle: Journal of Language and Literature, Vol. 10, No. 1.

Ritchie, William C., and Bhatia, Tejk. 2013. "23 Bilingualism and Multilingualism in the Global Media and Advertising", in The handbook of bilingualism and multilingualism. New Jersey: Wiley.

Sari, Pratiwi Kartika., Rostini, Deti., Fajarianto, Otto., and Safitri, Yuyun. 2020. “The Effect of Social Media on Reading Intensity of Fifth Grade Elementary School Students”, Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, Vol. 429.

Warsihna, Jaka., and Anwas, E. Oos M. 2017. “Curriculum Model for Improving Quality of Life for Remote Indigenous Community (Research on Baduy Tribe of Banten Province, Indonesia)”, Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, Special Issue.

Wei, Li. 2009. “Research Perspectives on Bilingualism and Multilingualism”, in The Blackwell Guide to Research Methods in Bilingualism and Multilingualism. New Jersey: Wiley.

Wei, Li. 2020. “Dimensions of Bilingualism”, in The Bilingualism Reader. New York: Routledge.

Wright, Chantal. 2010. “Exophony and Literary Translation: What It Means for the Translator When a Writer Adopts a New Language”, Target: International Journal of Translation Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1.

Yip, Virginia., and Matthews, Stephen. 2016. “Code-Mixing and Mixed Verbs in Cantonese-English Bilingual Children: Input and Innovation”, Languages, Vol. 1, No. 1.

Zein, S. 2019. “English, Multilingualism and Globalisation in Indonesia A Love Triangle: Why Indonesia Should Move towards Multilingual Education”, English Today, Vol. 35, No. 1.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed By:

DOAJ sinta Crossref Google Scholar AcademicKeys Research Bib garuda garuda


Creative Commons License

Copyright CC-BY-SA

counter View My Stats

Arabi : Journal of Arabic Studies, p-ISSN: 2548-6616, e-ISSN: 2548-6624